Monthly Archives: June 2010

difference between saheeh hadeeth and its isnaad is saheeh

Extracted from Islam QA

What is the difference between a saheeh hadeeth and a hadeeth whose isnaad is saheeh?.

Praise be to Allaah.

Firstly:

The muhaddithoon state that the saheeh hadeeth which is most likely attributable to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the hadeeth which fulfils all of the five following conditions:

1.     Each of its narrators is of good character

2.     Each of its narrators has a precise memory

3.     The isnaad is uninterrupted from beginning to end

4.     The hadeeth is sound and free of any shudhoodh (irregularity) in its isnaad or matn (text)

5.     The hadeeth is sound and free of any illah (fault) in its isnaad or text.

This has been discussed in the answer to question no. 79163.

Secondly:

The fourth and fifth conditions are among the most precise of conditions and the most difficult for the critic, because proving them required intense research and precision, bringing together all the isnaads and narrations of the hadeeth, as well as extensive experience in the sciences of hadeeth and specialization in criticism. Hence many of the later muhadditheen chose to err on the side of caution in their verdicts, and they limited their studies to checking the outward appearance of the isnaad to check whether it met the first three conditions, so if a specific isnaad met these three conditions they would say a saheeh isnaad, so as to alert the reader to the fact that they were only verifying that it met the first three conditions, and not the fourth and fifth, so that the reader would be aware of what this muhaddith meant.

Al-Haafiz ibn al-Salaah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

” ????? : ( ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ) ??? ????? :  ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ???  ???? ?? ???? : ??? ???? ???? ??????? ? ??? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? “

When they say This hadeeth has a saheeh isnaad or a hasan isnaad instead of this is a saheeh hadeeth or a hasan hadeeth, that is because it may be said that this hadeeth has a saheeh isnaad but it is not saheeh per se because it is shaadhdh (odd) or muallal (faulty). End quote.

Muqaddimah fi Uloom al-Hadeeth (p. 23)

Ibn Katheer says:

” ????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? “

The fact that the isnaad is deemed to be saheeh or hasan does not necessarily mean that the same applies to the text, because it may be shaadhdh (odd) or muallal (faulty). End quote.

Ikhtisaar Uloom al-Hadeeth (p. 43).

Al-Iraaqi said in his Alfiyyah:

” ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? *** ?????? ??? ????? ????? ???? “

The ruling that the isnaad is saheeh or hasan does not necessarily apply to the text. End quote.

Al-Tabsirah wal-Tadhkirah (1/107).

Thirdly:

Nevertheless, there may be an exception to this differentiation if it is known that a particular imam does not make this distinction between the two terms a saheeh isnaad and a saheeh hadeeth in his terminology. An imam especially if he is one of the earlier scholars may say a saheeh isnaad when he means that the hadeeth itself is saheeh, and that it meets all five conditions.

Al-Haafiz Ibn al-Salaah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

” ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? : ??? ???? ??????? ? ??? ???? ?? ??? ? ??? ???? ??? ? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? . ????? ???? “

But a reliable scholar may say in his book it has a saheeh isnaad and not mention any illah (fault), or criticize it, so it may be understood that he deems it to be saheeh in and of itself, because the absence of any illah (fault) or qaadih (flaw) is the basic principle. And Allaah knows best. End quote.

Muqaddimah fi Uloom al-Hadeeth (p. 23).

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:


” ????? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? – ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? – ??? ??????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ?? ???????? . 

??? ???? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? .  

???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ????


It seems to me that the correct view is that a distinction should be made between the one who differentiates when describing hadeeth as saheeh, stating it in either specific or general terms, and the one who does not do so.

The one who is known from studying his books to make this distinction should be viewed accordingly, so when he speaks in general terms it should be understood as referring to both the isnaad and the matn, and when he speaks in specific terms it should be understood as referring to the isnaad only.

And it maybe said concerning the one who is known to describe hadeeth only in specific terms all the time what we quoted above. End quote.

Al-Nukat ala Ibn al-Salaah (1/474).

And Allaah knows best.

source: http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/122507

Al-Dhahabi said in al-Mooqidah (24):

???? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??????

The scholars of hadeeth added a condition that the hadeeth should be free from any oddness or fault. This is subject to further discussion according to the principles of the fuqaha, because many of what may be considered as faults are not accepted as such by them.

See: Tadreeb al-Raawi (1/68-75, 155)

source: http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/79163

Ibn e hjar asqalani RA said regarding the hadith of amash

 ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ????

Because trustworthiness of the chain does not mean that its sahih (meaning hadees is sahih) Amash is mudallis and he did not narrate his sama from Ataa  

Talkhees al hubeer no: 1181

source: http://www.islamport.com/b/3/alhadeeth/takhreej/%DF%CA%C8%20%C7%E1%CA%CE%D1%ED%CC/%CA%E1%CE%ED%D5%20%C7%E1%CD%C8%ED%D1/%CA%E1%CE%ED%D5%20%C7%E1%CD%C8%ED%D1%20011.html

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Wives of the Prophet

Wives of the Prophet

The wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the Mothers of the Believers (may Allaah be pleased with them)

Praise be to Allaah. 

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married the following women: 

1 Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid (may Allaah be pleased with her)

She was the first of his wives. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married her when he was twenty-five years old, and he did not take another wife until after she died. All his children were born from her, except Ibraaheem. 

Al-Bukhaari entitled a chapter in his Saheeh: The marriage of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to Khadeejah (may Allaah be pleased with her), and her virtues, in which he narrated a hadeeth from Aaishah who said: I never felt jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as I did of Khadeejah, although she died before he married me, because of what I heard him say about her. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3815. 

2 Sawdah bint Zamah ibn Qays

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married her in the tenth year of his Prophethood. Tabaqaat Ibn Sad, narrating from al-Waaqidi, 8/52-53; Ibn Katheer in al-Bidaayah wal-Nihaayah, 3/149 

3 Ayesha bint Abi Bakr al-Siddeeq (may Allaah be pleased with her)

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married her in Shawwaal of the tenth year of the Prophethood. Ibn Sad, 8/58-59. She herself said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married me when I was six years old, and consummated the marriage with me when I was nine. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3894; Muslim, 1422. Al-Bukhaari (5077) also narrated that the Messenger of Allaah (S) (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not marry any virgin apart form her. 

4 Hafsa bint Umar (may Allaah be pleased with her)

It was narrated from Abd-Allaah ibn Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that Hafsahs husband Khunays ibn Hudhaafah, who was one of the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and had been present at Badr, died in Madeenah. Umar ibn al-Khattaab said: I met Uthmaan ibn Affaan and offered Hafsah to him in marriage. I said: If you wish, I will marry Hafsah bint Umar to you. He said: I will think about it. Several nights passed, then he said: I think that I do not want to get married at this time. Umar said: Then I met Abu Bakr and I said: If you wish, I will marry Hafsah bint Umar to you. Abu Bakr kept quiet and did not give me any response. I was more upset about him than about Uthmaan. Several nights passed, then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) proposed to her and I married her to him. Then Abu Bakr met me and said: Perhaps you felt upset when you offered Hafsah in marriage to me and I did not reply? I said: Yes. He said: Nothing prevented me from responding to your offer but the fact that I knew that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had mentioned her, and I did not want to disclose the secret of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). If he had decided not to marry her, I would have accepted your offer.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4005. 

5 Zaynab bint Khuzaymah (may Allaah be pleased with her)

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married her in Ramadaan, thirty-one months after the Hijrah. Tabaqaat Ibn Sad, 8/115 

6 Umm Salamah bint Abi Umayyah (may Allaah be pleased with her)

Muslim (918) narrated that Umm Salamah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say: There is no person who is faced with a calamity and says Inna Lillaahi wa inna ilayhi raajioon, Allaahumma ujurni fi museebati w’ukhluf li khayran minha (Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return; O Allaah, reward me in this calamity and compensate me with something better than it) but Allaah will reward him in his calamity and will compensate him with something better than that. She said: When Abu Salamah died, I said what the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had commanded me, and Allaah compensated me with someone better than him: the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

According to another report: when Abu Salamah died, I said: Who is better than Abu Salamah, the companion of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)? But Allaah decreed that I should say it. Then I got married to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). 

7 Juwayriyah bint al-Haarith (may Allaah be pleased with her)

She fell prisoner to the Muslims during the battle of Banul-Mustalaq, and she came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to ask him to help her to manumit herself and buy her freedom. He offered to buy her freedom and marry her, and she accepted. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married her and made her manumission her dowry. When the people came to know of that, they set free their own prisoners, so as to honour the in-laws of the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). No woman brought a greater blessing to her people than she did. Narrated by Ibn Ishaaq with a hasan isnaad. Seerat Ibn Hishaam, 3/408-409. 

8 Zaynab bint Jahsh (may Allaah be pleased with her)

Concerning her Allaah revealed the words (interpretation of the meaning): 

So when Zayd had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them)

[al-Ahzaab 33:37] 

She used to boast about this to the other wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), saying: Your families arranged your marriages but Allaah arranged my marriage from above the seven heavens. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 7420. 

9 Umm Habeebah bint Abi Sufyaan (may Allaah be pleased with her):

Abu Dawood (2107) narrated from Urwah from Umm Habeebah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that she was married to Ubayd-Allaah ibn Jahsh, who died in Abyssinia. Then the Negus married her to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and gave her a mahr of four thousand on his behalf, and sent her to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) with Shurahbeel ibn Hasanah. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani. 

10- Maymoonah bint al-Haarith (may Allaah be pleased with her)

It was narrated from Ibn Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married Maymoonah when he was in ihraam. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1832; Muslim, 1410. 

The words when he was in ihraam are a mistake. In fact the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) married her after he exited ihraam following Umrat al-Qada. 

See Zaad al-Maaad, 1/113; Fath al-Baari, hadeeth no. 5114. 

11 Safiyyah bint Huyayy ibn Akhtab (may Allaah be pleased with her)

The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) set her free and married her after the battle of Khaybar. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 371. 

These are the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) with whom he consummated m
arriage. Two of them died during the lifetime of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), namely Khadeejah and Zaynab bint Khuzaymah (may Allaah be pleased with them both). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) left behind nine wives when he died; there is no difference of scholarly opinion on this matter. 

See Zaad al-Maaad, 1/105-114 

It was said that Rayhaanah bint Amr al-Nadariyyah (or al-Quraziyyah) was also one of his wives. She was taken prisoner during the battle of Bani Qurayzah, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) chose her for himself and married her, then he divorced her then took her back. Tabaqaat Ibn Sad , narrating from al-Waaqidi, 8/130 

And it was said that she was a concubine. This was regarded as more likely by Ibn al-Qayyim in Zaad al-Maaad.

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Is there Consensus on Talaq-e-Salasa?

Assalam Walaikum Wa Rehmat Ulla Hi Wa Bara Katu Hu.

As it is proven from the Quran and Sunnah, that three divorces cannot takes place at one time.

For example :

If a person wants to offer Fard Salah of Fajr, Zuhr and Asr on the time of Magrib, If he prays all the Salah on the time of Magrib. Only the Salah of Magrib will be accepted.

Another Example, when you go to Makkah for the Umra and throw the Stones to the Satan in a Turn if you throw 5 or 6 or how many stones you get in your hand, the Turn will be counted only as one.

This example is for the people who many a times say, that it can take place from both Method because it is the matter between the God and that Person. Yeah no one disagree with this, but when it comes to the Law of God, the things should be accepted as the God revealed.

Quran and Sunnah, Further states us and to get Unite and not to do Taffaraka. So May Allah almight accept this little effort. And Try to unite the Ummah. Ameen.

The Purpose of the topic is to tell that, Is there Ijma (Consensus) of Ummah on Talaq e Salasa ?.
Means Giving 3 divorce in one sitting, will it be counted as 3 or 1 ?.

This Method, is crystal Clear from the Quran and Sunnah that it will be counted as 3=1, not 3=3 in one sitting. And those who opposes it also agrees on it, because they couldn’t neglect it because their Proof starts from the Hadith where it is mentioned at the time of Prophet (s) and Abu Bakr (r) 3 Divorces at one time counted as 1 even in the starting years of Umar (r) but later on he imposed as a punishment. So no one could deny that.

But they claim, we know that it is against the Quran and Sunnah, and it was the Ijtehad of Umar (r) but Prophet (s) said “My Ummah will never gather upon error”. So this is why we believe in it.

So Inshallah, we will look at it whether there is Ijma of Ummar or not.

Before going into depth of the topic, we should have a look on the Definition and Conditions mentioned by the Ahlus Sunnah Scholars of Ijma and their Conditions.

Ijma is the verbal noun of the Arabic word ajmaa, which as two meanings: to determine and to agree upon something.

Ijma has two types :
1. Ijma of Sahaba
2. Ijma of Ahl-Ilm on a certain Matter


Ijma of Sahaba is Hujjah only when, when it is unequivocally proven that Sahabas has gathered upon on certain matter because after the death of Prophet (s) Sahabas spreaded in different parts off the world. Some in Iraq, Some in Egypt, Some in Khurasan etc.

Ijma of Ahle-Ilm is Hujjah when all the Ahle-Ilm have done Ijma on it and it is only proven when other Ahle-Ilm known it.

The Ijma of Ahle-Ilm is further devided into two types:
1. Khabar-e-Ahad
2. Mutawatir

Khabar-e-Ahad is that when you find a Scholar Stating that there is Ijma, but it doesn’t know how many scholars agreed with this of the Same Era. Because even till today in Islamic History how many Scholars have been passed it is unknown to everyone. Khabar-e-Ahad is Zanni and Zanni cannot be Yaqeeni so how can it be acceptable according to Hanafi School of Thought.

Mutawatir Ijma is impossible, because it is only possible when there is a Ijma of Ahle-Ilm of an Era and they will meet the Mujtahid of another era to have Ijma with them, which is not possible.

Conditions of Ijma :

1. It is not Allowed to have Ijma on something which is not Proven from Quran and Hadith.

2. The Ijma against the Quran and Sunnah is impossible, and neither it is allowed. Since the Ijma itself has been proven from the Hadith of Rasul (s) so it should be according to Quran and Sunnah.

Imam Shafae (rah) says : It is unambigiously proven from the Ijma of Muslims that when a Muslim finds the Sahih Hadith of Rasul (s), so it is strictly forbidden for him to oppose it and to select any opinion [ Tazeem Al-Sunnah 28, Alam Al-Muaqain 2/282 ]

Imam Shakwani (rah)
writes :
” In the Ijma even if one Mujtahid has differed, then the Madhhab of Jamhur Ahle-Ilm is that the Ijma has not taken Place and neither it is Hujjah. And Imam Al-Surfi said that opposing all the people of this Single Mujtahid saying cannot be called as odd, because that Mujtahid being amongst the Group of Mujtahid differs with them, so against it from the sayings of all Mujtahideens evidence cannot be established until he agrees with them it can never be called as consensus.”

And he writes on after explaining :
“Some times the saying of that Single Mujtahid against all of them is Haq”

[ Irshad Al-Mafhul 88-89 ]

And the same mentionedd that :
“If one or two Ahle-Ilm do differ in some in a matter, then it will not be called as Ijma but Ikhtelaf (difference) this is the Madhhab of Jamhur Ahle-Ilm”

[ See Al-Ihkam Al-Ibn e Hazm 1/213, Muslim Al-Subut 2/222 ]

Note : Muslim Al-Subut is the Famous Usool Book of Hanafis.

Famouse Book of Usool-e-Fiqh Sharh Al-Kawakib Al-Muneer 2/231 :
In the era of Sahaba a Tabae who reaches the level of Ijtihad, then this Mujtahid Tabae if he differs will of the Sahaba then it will not be known as Ijma, Many of the Ahle-Ilm and Fuqahha o Mutakin have this Madhhab and Imam Ahmad have also this Madhhab.

Imam Nawawi (rah) has told this to Ikhtelaf rather than Ijma because people have differed in it, by quoting the people who has differed
He quoted “Tawus (r) and Ahle-Zahir, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Muhammad bin Maqatal and Hajjaj bin Irtiqa differed with them” [ Sharh Muslim Al-Nawawi, Baab Al-Talaq ]

It is known that Tawus, Muhammad bin Ishaq and Hajjaj bin Irtiqa are amongst the 1st and 2nd century hijri, And Muhammad bin Maqatal is amongst the 2nd and 3rd century hijri.

Imam Ibn Rashd Qurtubi Maulud (560-595 H) a Maliki Jurist
:
There is consensus of all the Ulemas that giving 3 divorce on separate times the divorce taken place, But there is difference when instead of separate if the divorce is given in one sitting 3 times then whether the divorce will taken place or not, Jumhar Fuqahha are of the opinion it can be, but Ahle Zahir and one Jammat of the Ulemas are of the view that it will be counted only as 1 Rujui divorce, and we on the basis of Proofs of Shariah are of the view that those people who are of the view that Talaq e Salasa in one time will be counted as 3 are finishing the wisdom Shariah rules.

[ Bidayat Al-Mujtahid Waghasyat Al-Maqtasid 2/61-63 ]

It is obvious that in this Jammat of Ulema, it includes those Ima of Maliki which are found before Ibn-e-Rashd in the 3rd, 4th and the 5th Hijri. For instance Qazi Ahmad bin Baqi Bin Makhlad, Muhammad bin Abdul Salam Khashi and other Ahle-Ilm of this era which i quote in this article.

Imam Talmasani Ibrahim bin Yahya Maliki (633 H) :

Allama Qastalani writes in Sharh of Sahih Bukhari :

Maliki Imam Sheikh Khalil in Ishaq Junadi Misri in his book Al-Tusahi Sharh Jama Al-Fahat has written Imam Talmasani Ibrahim bin Yahya bin Musa Abu Ishaq said in our Maliki Madhhab there is a Fatwa Divorce given 3 times in one sitting would be considered as one. Imam Talmasani said this has been mentioned in the book Kitab Al-Nuwadar Walziyadat Al-Ibn e Abi Ziyad but i myself didn’t see it. [ Irshad Al-Sari 8/127 ]

Note : Saying of Imam Khalil that he himself didn’t see it, doesn’t mean that Imam Talmasani quoted it wrong. Because other Ulemas also quoted it that’s why Maliki also have this opinion.
He quoted the book of Ibn-e-Abi Ziyad who was the scholar of 398 or 389 H.

Imam Al-Mazi Muhammad Bin Ishaq and Qazi Hajjaj bin Irtiqa (The Scholars of the Era of Abu Hanifah and Imam Malik) :


Imam Qastalni writes :
“In Ala-Sharaf Ala Madhhab Ala-Sharaf of Wazir Yahya bin Muhammad Bin Habira Al-Shayabani Al-Baghdadi Hanbali writes In it, in one sitting 3 divorces will take place as one, amongst them were Imam Al-Mazi Muhammad Bin Ishaq and Qazi Hajjaj bin Irtiqa”

[Irshad Al-Sari 8/127]

Wazir Yahya bin Muhammad Bin Habira Al-Shayabani Al-Baghdadi Hanbali was a scholar of 499-560 H ( See Seera Alam Al-Nubla 20/426-232 )

See that a Hanbali Scholar of 560 Hijri is telling about the scholars of the era of Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifah (rah),
Muhammad bin Ishaq and Qazi Hajjaj bin Irtiqa is amongst the view that 3 divorces in one sitting cannot take place.

As they were of the era of Abu Hanifah (rah), they were also in the era of Imam Malik (rah) because they were amongst 1st and 2nd Century Hijri.

These 2 scholars have also quoted by Imam Badar-ud-Din Aini Hanafi in Sharah of Bukhari Ummatdul Qari 1/534.

Imam Abu-Abdullah Muhammad Qurtubi 672 H:

Imam Abu-Abdullah who died in the same year of Imam Nawawi (r).
He adopted the same way of Imam Nawawi and quoted Jamhur Salaf but didn’t called it Ijma rather showed Ikhtelaf by quoting the opposing scholars.

“Our Ulema (Means Maliki Jurists) have stated that giving 3 talaqs in a sitting and on its taking place have Ima-e-Fatwa (Means Maliki Jurists) have consensus, and Jamhur Salaf have the same Maddhab, and Tawus and some Ahle-Zawahir have adopted the way of Shazuz and said that 3 talaqs would be considered as one, this has been narrated also from Muhammad bin Ishaq and Hajjaj bin Irtiqa and from them also it has been narrated that these talaqs even will not take place. Maqatal aslo have this Maddhab, From Dawud Zahiri has been narrated same, and from Hajjaj this saying is famous but Jamhur Salaf and Ima-e-Fatwa consider it. [ Tafsir Qurtubi 3/219 ]

After quoting these scholars, he also quote other Maliki Scholars which breaks the Consensus of them too.

“There is consensus of everyone that whosever gives 3 talaq he is considered as damind, but there is difference that how much talaq will take place. Therefore companions like Hazrat Ali, Ibn-e-Masud, Ibn-e-Abbas, Zubair bin Awam, Abdur-Rehman bin Awf (May Allah be pleased with them all) will considered these type of 3 talaq to 1. And the same has been narrated from Mashaykh of Kurtuba Ibn-e-Zanbah, Ahmad bin Baqi, Muhammad bin Abdul Salam Khashi type of scholars who are pious and Faqi. Furthermore Zabakh bin Al-Khabab and except this also one Jammat have a same Fatwa” [ Tafsir e Qurtubi 3/132 ]

Imam Qurtubi called it Difference not Ijma, that how much talaq will take place.

Imam Qurtubi previously stated the consensus of Ima-e-Fatwa of Maliki Jurists and he breaks it by quoting from a more big scholar of Malikis Imam Ahmad bin Maghiz that many of the Sahabas and Maliki Jurists like Ibn-e-Zanbah and Ahmad bin Baqi etc, were of the same view of Ahlul Hadith. All these scholars were from 2nd to 4th Century Hijri.

InshAllah, more will be added.

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OFFENSIVE JIHAD VS. DEFENSIVE JIHAD

OFFENSIVE JIHAD VS. DEFENSIVE JIHAD PDF E-mail
Fiqh: Islamic Jurisprudence – Jihad
Written by Abdullah Azzam

Offensive Jihad (where the enemy is attacked in his own territory).

Where the Kuffar are not gathering to fight the Muslims. The fighting becomes fard Kifaya with the minimum requirement of appointing believers to guard borders, and the sending of an army at least once a year to terrorize the enemies of Allah. It is a duty Of upon the Imam to assemble and send out an army unit into the land of war once or twice every year. Moreover, it is the responsibility of the Muslim population to assist him, and if he does not send an army he is in sin. And the Ulama have mentioned that this type of jihad is for maintaining the payment of Jizya. The scholars of the principles of religion have also said: “Jihad is Da’wah with a force, and is obligatory to perform with all available capabilities, until there remains only Muslims or people who submit to Islam.”

Defensive Jihad

This is expelling the Kuffar from our land, and it is Fard Ayn, a compulsory duty upon all. It is the most important of the compulsory duties and arises in the following
conditions:
A) If the Kuffar enter a land of the Muslims.
B) If the rows meet in battle and they begin to approach each other.
C) If the Imam calls a person or a people to march forward then they must march.
D) If the Kuffar capture and imprison a group of Muslims.

The First Condition: If the Kuffar Enter a Muslim Land.
In this condition the pious predecessors, those who succeeded them, the Ulama of the four Mathhabs (Maliki, Hanafi, Shaffie and Hanbali), the Muhadditheen, and the Tafseer commentators, are agreed that in all Islamic ages, Jihad under this condition becomes Fard Ayn upon the Muslims of the land which the Kuffar have attacked and upon the Muslims close by, where the children will march forth without the permission of the parents, the wife without the permission of her husband and the debtor without the permission of the creditor. And, if the Muslims of this land cannot expel the Kuffar because of lack of forces, because they slacken, are indolent or simply do not act, then the Fard Ayn obligation spreads in the shape of a circle from the nearest to the next nearest.

If they too slacken or there is again a shortage of manpower, then it is upon the people behind them, and on the people behind them, to march forward. This process continues until it becomes Fard Ayn upon the whole world.

Sheikh Ibn Taymia says on this topic: “About the defensive jihad, which is repelling an aggressor, is the most tasking type of jihad. As agreed upon by everyone, it
is obligatory to protect the religion and what is sacred. The first obligation after Iman is the repulsion of the enemy aggressor who assaults the religion and the worldly affairs.

There are no conditional requirements such as supplies or transport, rather he is fought with all immediate capability. The Ulama, our peers and others have spoken about this.”

Ibn Taymia supports his opinion of the absence of the requirement of transport in his reply to the Judge who said: “If jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon the people of a country, one of the requirements, in comparison to Hajj, is that one must have supplies and a ride if the distance is such that one shortens the prayer”. Ibn Taymia said: “What the Judge has said in comparison to Hajj has not been stated before by anybody and is a weak argument. Jihad is obligatory because it is for the repulsion of the harm of the enemy, therefore it has priority over Hijr . For Hijr no transport is considered necessary. Of the Jihads some take priority. It is furthered in a sahih hadith narrated by Ebaad Bin Asaamat that the Prophet (saw) said: “it is upon the Muslim to listen and obey in hardship and prosperity, in what he likes and dislikes, and even if he is not given his rights”.

Therefore, the pillar of the most important of obligations, is the marching forward in times of hardship as well as prosperity. As has been stated, contrary to Hajj, the obligation remains present in times of hardship. And this is in offensive jihad. So it is clear that defensive jihad carries a greater degree of obligation. To defend the sacred things and the religion from the aggressor is obligatory, as agreed upon by everyone. The first obligation after Iman is repulsion of the enemy aggressor who assaults the religion and the worldly affairs”. Now we look at the opinions of the four Mathhabs who are all in agreement on this point.

Opinions of the Mathhabs

Hanafi Fiqh

Ibn Aabidin said: “Jihad becomes Fard Ayn if the enemy attacks one of the borders of the Muslims, and it becomes Fard Ayn upon those close by. For those who are far away, it is Fard Kifaya, if their assistance is not required. If they are needed, perhaps because those nearby the attack cannot resist the enemy, or are indolent and do not fight Jihad, then it becomes Fard Ayn upon those behind them, like the obligation to pray and fast. There is no room for them to leave it. If they too are unable, then it becomes Fard Ayn upon those behind them, and so on in the same manner until the jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon the whole Ummah of Islam from the East to the West”. 
And the following have like Fatawa: Al Kassani, Ibn Najim and Ibn Hammam.

Maliki Fiqh

In Hashiyat ad Dussuqi it is stated: Jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon a surprise attack by the enemy. Dussuqi said: “Wherever this happens, jihad immediately becomes Fard Ayn upon everybody, even women, slaves and children, and they march out even if their guardians, husbands and creditors forbid them to.”

Shaffie Fiqh

In the Nihayat al Mahtaj by Ramli: “If they approach one of our lands and the distance between them and us becomes less than the distance permitting the shortening of prayers, then the people of that territory must defend it and it becomes Fard Ayn even upon the people for whom there is usually no jihad; the poor, the children, the slaves, the debtor and the women.”

Hanbali Fiqh

In Al Mughni by Ibn al Qadamah: “Jihad becomes Fard Ayn in three situations:

1) If the two sides meet in battle and they approach each other.
2) If the Kuffar enter a land, jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon its people.
3) If the Imam calls a people to march forward it is obligatory upon them to
march forward.”

And Ibn Taymia remarked: “If the enemy enters a Muslim land, there is no doubt that it is obligatory for the closest and then the next closest to repel him, because the Muslim lands are like one land. It is obligatory to march to the territory even without the permission of parents or creditor, and narrations reported by Ahmad are clear on this.” This situation is known as the General March.

 ————————————————————

Sheikh Abdullah Azzam
Defense of the Muslim Lands

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Test

This article is in refutation of extreme Sufis who are against Shaykh Ul Islam Ibn e Tamiyah RA and they say that May Allah Forbid Ibn e tamiyah ra was deviant and Kafir.

Shaykh Ibn Naasir al-Deen al-Dimashqi (751 h) wrote a book called al-Radd al-Waafir ala man zaama anna man sammaa Ibn Taymiyah Shaykh al-Islam kaafir, in which he refuted one of the fanatical Hanafis who claimed that it was not permissible to call Ibn Taymiyah Shaykh al-Islam, and that the one who did that was a kaafir. In it he mentioned eagihty five imams, all of whom described Ibn Taymiyah as Shaykh al-Islam, and he quoted their words from their books

These are Names of Muhadditheen who consider Ibn e Tamiyah RA to be Shaykh Ul Islam quoted by Imam Ibn Nasir Ud Din Ad Damashqi in his book and online link of book is

http://arabic.islamicweb.com/books/taimiya.asp?book=366

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(end)

Ibn e Katheer ra on his Teacher Ibn e Tamiyah ra

Ibn e katheer said in al bidaya wal nihaya vol 18 page 53

???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????

“Some jurists were jealous of Shaykh Taqi Ud Din Ibn Taymiyyah because he had contacts in the Government, and because he single-handedly took care of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, and because people listened to what he had to say, and because they loved him, and because of the great number of his followers, and because he stood for the truth, and because of his knowledge and action.

Ibn Katheer  said,(taken from article of Abu Rumaisah source:http://www.allaahuakbar.net/scholars/ibn_taymiyyah/shaykh_al-islaam.htm )

“The least he would do when he heard something was to memorise it and then busy himself with learning it. He was intelligent and had much committed to memory, and he became an Imaam in tafseer and everything linked to it and knowledgeable in fiqh. Indeed it was said he was more knowledgeable of thefiqh of the madhabs then the followers of those very same madhabs in his time and other than his time. He was a scholar in Usul and the branches of the religion and grammar and the language and other textual and intellectual sciencesno scholar of a science would speak to him except that he thought that that science was the speciality of ibn Taymiyyah. As for hadeeth then he was the carrier of its flag, a haafidh and able to distinguish the weak from the strong, fully acquainted with the narrators” [al-Bidaayah wan Nihaayah (14/118-119) of ibn Katheer.]

He also said, “He was, may Allaah have mercy upon him, from the greatest of scholars, also from those who err and are correct. However his errors with respect to his correct rulings were like a drop in a huge ocean and they are forgiven him as is authentically reported by Bukhaaree, when a ruler makes a ruling, and he is correct then he has two rewards, and if he has erred then he has one reward.”

He also mentioned that when the scholars of his time gathered for a sitting with ibn Taymiyyah to discuss his work Aqueedah al-Hamawiyyah that his replies to their accusations could not be rebutted. [al-Bidaayah wan Nihaayah (14/5)]

Similarly he mentioned

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???????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???.

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In short it says that when the scholars sat to argue with him(shaykh Ibn e Tamiyah ra) with regards to his Aqueedah al-Waasitiyyah the argument ended with themaccepting all that was contained in the book as in vol. 14 of al-Bidaayah under the heading Aqd al-Majaalis ath-Thalaatha and Vol 18 Page 53 of ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???  with the tahqeeq of Dr Abdullah bin Abdul Mohsin Al Turki (end)

Ibn e Katheer Made the Whole Chapter ??? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? (The first three councils to Sheikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah)

Ibn Kathir said Regarding Funeral prayer Of Ibn e Tamiyah RA

he said

Ahmad bin Hambal said: Tell the innovators that between us and them are the funerals, and there is no doubt that the funeral of al-Imam Ahmad was vast and great due to how populated his city was, and how the people gathered for him and respected him, and the government loved him. Shaykh Taqi ad-Din died in the land of Damascus, and its population was nowhere near that of Baghdad in size. However, they gathered for his funeral in such numbers that if the ruler had forced them to all go out, they would not have been out in the numbers that were seen that day, and this is all for a man who died in a citadel imprisoned by the ruler.

al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah (14/130)

Hafidh Ad Dahabee Ra on his Teacher Ibn e Tamiyah ra

AL HAFIZ DAHABEE SAID

Al shaykh Al Imam AL hafiz AL naqid(faqeeh) AL MUJTAHID AL MUFASSIR al bare`e Shaykh ul ISLAM,

Tadhkaratul Huffaz 4/1496 no: 1175

Awesome Saying of Hafidh Dahabee(taken from Islam QA)

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???? ?? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ? ????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ? ???? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???? ????? ?? ????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????? ? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ???????? ? ???? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??? ????? ? ?????? ???? ? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ? ??? ???? ???? ????? ? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ? ???????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ????? ? ???? ?? ????? ? ?? ???????? ? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ????? ????? .

??????? ????? ? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ????? : ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? .

He is our Shaykh, the Shaykh of Islam, unrivalled in our time in terms of knowledge, courage, intelligence, spiritual enlightenment, generosity, sincerity towards the ummah, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, and learning hadeeth  he put a great deal of effort into seeking it and writing it down, and he examined the different categories of narrators and acquired knowledge that no one else acquired.

He excelled in Quraanic commentary (tafseer) and delved deeply into its subtle meanings. He derived meanings from it that no one else managed to do before him. He also excelled in hadeeth and in the memorization thereof; very few have memorized as much hadeeth as he memorized. He attributed ahaadeeth to their proper sources and narrators, and he was able to quote readily whatever he needed to establish proof. He surpassed all people in knowledge of fiqh and the views of different madhhabs, and the fatwas of the Sahaabah and Taabieen, so much so that when he issued a fatwa he did not adhere to the view of a madhhab, rather he based his fatwa on whichever view was supported by the stronger evidence. He excelled in knowledge of Arabic language, and studied issues on the basis of rationality and reason. He studied the views of the philosophers and refuted their arguments and pointed out their mistakes and warned against them. He supported the Sunnah with the strongest evidence and proofs. He was harmed for the sake of Allaah by his opponents and persecuted for his support of the pure Sunnah, until Allaah caused him to prevail and caused the pious to unite in loving him and praying for him, and suppressed his enemies and guided men of other groups and sects through him. Allaah made kings and commanders inclined to follow him and obey him, and he revived Syria and indeed Islam  through his efforts, when it was almost defeated, by urging the rulers to resist the Tatars,when people were harbouring doubts about Allaah and the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking (cf. al-Ahzaab 33:10-11), and hypocrisy grew strong.

His good qualities are many, and he is too great for a man like me to talk about his life. If I were to swear an oath between the Corner and the Maqaam I would swear that I have never seen anyone like him, and that he has never seen anyone like himself.

Dhayl Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah by Ibn e Rajab Hanblee (4/390).

Note that these Extreme sufis quote fabricated saying of Dahabee against Ibn e Tamiyah RA and it is famous among sufis by the name of An Naseeha Ad Dahabiyah.

Reply 1(taken from http://islamicawakening.com/viewarticle.php?articleID=743&pageID=365& )

A book ascribed to adh-Dhahabee in which he launches a severe attack on ibn Taymiyyah, but in reality was not written by him, but falsely ascribed to him, this due to many reasons:

a. No one who is familiar with the works of adh-Dhahabee mentioned this as one of his works.

b. Adh-Dhahabee remained the student of ibn Taymiyyah until the latters death.

c.All of the sayings of adh-Dhahabee in the books that are affirmed to be from him, to do with ibn Taymiyyah, revolve around praise and respect of him. (A glimpse of these has preceded).

d. This letter is written in the handwriting of ibn Qaadee ash-Shuhba, an enemy of ibn Taymiyyah.

We have not seen one who ascribes this book to adh-Dhahabee after Qaadee ash-Shuhba except for his contemporary, al-Haafidh as-Sakhaawee, may Allaah have mercy on him, who merely followed him. [From the book, at-Tawdeeh al-Jallee fee ar-Radd alaa Naseeha adh-Dhahabiyyah al-Manhula alaa al-Imaam adh-Dhahabee (pp85-86) by Shaykh Muhammad bin Ibraaheem ash-Shaybaanee, with summary] (end)

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Shaykh ul Islam Ibne Tamiyah RA

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A Woman of Honor: Khadija

A Woman of Honor: Khadija

Imm al-Madna al-Munawarrah ‘Abdul Muhsin Ibn Muhammad al-Qsim

All praise is due to Allaah, Lord of all the worlds. Peace and blessings be upon the Messenger, his household and companions. Fellow Muslims! Fear Allaah as He should be feared. Fear of Allaah is a reminder for His devoted servants and it is safety from His punishment.

Dear brethren! Muslim woman attains prosperity by following the path of the best women who lived in the best generation and got nurtured in the house of Prophethood.

They are women of high status and outstanding estimation. Allaah praises them in the Quraan where He says [translation of meaning]….

O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allaah), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease (of hypocrisy, or evil desire for adultery) should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner. (Al-Ahzaab 33:32)

They are blessed and great women. Foremost among them is that intelligent and wise woman, Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid, the religious and noble woman. She grew up upon virtuous characters and manners. She was chaste and gracious. She was known among Makkah womenfolk as the pure woman. The Messenger of Allaah married her and she became an excellent wife for him. She supported him with her life, wealth and wisdom. During his sorrowful days, he would seek shelter with her and confide in her.

When the first revelation came to him he went to his wife frightened, and he said, O Khadeejah, I fear for myself. But Khadeejah responded to his fear with a firm heart. She told him, By Allaah, Allaah will not disgrace you.

Islaam started in her house and she was the first person to embrace it. Ibn al-Atheer said,Khadeejah was the first person to embrace Islaam, according to the consensus of the Muslims. No man or woman ever embraced Islaam before her.

At the beginning of the Prophets mission, he was faced with many tribulations. But she stood by him compassionately and supported him with her outstanding intelligence. Whenever he heard any undesirable words from the people and came to her, she would strengthen and console him.

The Prophet said about her:
She believed in me when people denied me, she trusted me when people belied me; she supported me with her wealth when people refused to support me and I was blessed with children by her when I was denied children by other women. (Ahmad)

Khadeejah was a great and dutiful wife to her husband and an affectionate mother to her children. She gave birth to all the Prophets children except Ibraaheem. She was extremely good-mannered. She never argued with her husband and she never bothered him. The Messenger of Allaah said:
Angel Jibreel came to me and said: Give Khadeejah the good tidings that she will have a palace made of hollowed pearls in Paradise and there will be neither noise nor any trouble in it. (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim)

As-Suhaylee said, She was given the glad tiding of a house in Paradise because she never raised her voice over that of the Prophet and she never bothered him. She was pleased with her Lord and Allaah is pleased with her.

The Prophet said, Angel Jibreel told me:
When you come to Khadeejah, convey my Lords greetings to her and mine as well.
(Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim)
Ibn al-Qayyim said, Khadeejah was the only woman known to have this honour.

Allaah loved Khadeejah, so did His angels. The Messenger of Allaah also loved her so much. He said:
I am blessed with her love. (Muslim)

Whenever the Prophet remembered her, he would mention her in glowing attributes and would show gratitude for her companionship. Aaishah said, Whenever the Messenger of Allaah remembered Khadeejah, he would never be tired of praising her and invoking Allaahs forgiveness for her. He appreciated her love and sincerity and he would honour her friends after her death. Aaishah said:
He would often slaughter a goat, cut it into parts and distribute it to Khadeejahs friends. And whenever I asked him, Are there no other women in the world except Khadeejah? He would say, She was this and that and she bore me children. (Al-Bukhaaree)

After her death, Allaahs Messenger heard her sisters voice. He them became sad and said, She reminded me of Khadeejah.

Khadeejah was perfect in her religion, wisdom and conduct. The Prophet said:
Many men attained perfection, but only three women attained it: Maryam, daughter of Imraan [Jesus mother], Aasiyah, Pharaohs wife and Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid. (Ibn Mardooyah)

She preceded the women of this Ummah in righteousness, nobility and splendour. Allaahs Messenger said:
Maryam [Mary, Jesus mother] was the best woman of her time, and the best woman of this Ummah is Khadeejah. (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim)

Khadeejah was righteous and made her home righteous. She reaped the fruit of her labour and she and her daughter became the best of the women of the worlds in Paradise. The Prophet said:
The best f the women of Paradise are: Khadeejah, Faatimah, Maryam [Mary] and Aasiyah. (Ahmad and An-Nasaaee)

She occupied a great place in the Prophets heart. He did not marry any woman before her neither did he marry any woman or have any concubine while she was still with him until she died. He was extremely distressed with her death. Adh-Dhahabee said, Khadeejah was intelligent, gracious, religious, chaste and noble. 

She is one of the dwellers of Paradise.

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